1000 – Wrocław becomes the seat of the bishopric. Appearance of papal edict – the oldest preserved, written mention of Wrocław. November 2002 – The function of the President of Wrocław is taken by Rafał Dutkiewicz, elected for the first time after the war in direct elections.


  • 1000
    Wrocław becomes the seat of the bishopric. Appearance of papal edict – the oldest preserved, written mention of Wrocław.
  • 1242
    Location of the city, rebuilt after Mongol invasion, on German law.
  • 1261
    Wrocław obtains Magdeburg Law and the City Council.
  • 1299
    Initiation of the construction of city walls completed in the middle of the 14th century.
  • 1335
    After Prince Henry Piast’s death, the city and Wrocław duchy come under the reign of the Bohemia crown.
  • 1523
    Beginning of reformation in Wrocław (a sermon preached by Johann Hess at St Mary Magdalene Church (kościół Świętej Marii Magdaleny)).
  • 1526
    After the death of Louis II of Hungary, the King of Bohemia, Wrocław and Silesia come under the reign of the House of Habsburg; moreover, a construction of modern fortification started and lasted until the end of the 16th century; it survived until the beginning of 19th century.
  • 1648
    The end of the Thirty Years’ War – the city manages to avoid major damage and preserves its mainly Protestant character.
  • 1702
    Establishment of the Society of Jesus Academy (Akademia Jezuicka) by Tsar Leopold I.
  • 1741
    Beginning of Silesian wars, as a result of which Wrocław and Silesia came under Prussian rule.
  • 1807
    City conquered by Napoleon’s army and beginning of demolition of city fortifications.
  • 1809
    As a result of reforms in Prussia, a modern municipal self-government is established in Wrocław.
  • 1811
    Establishment of the public, Prussian University in Wrocław – the University of Wrocław (Uniwersytet Wrocławski).
  • 1821
    Subordination of Wrocław bishopric directly to the Holy See.
  • 1840
    First omnibus line put into operation.
  • 1842
    Opening of the first section of an iron railway (Wrocław – Oława) as a beginning of expansion of the Wrocław junction.
  • 1848
    Events of the Spring of Nations’ Revolution in Wrocław.
  • 1875
    Beginning of operation of “Archimedes” metal processing industry plants.
  • 1877
    Activation of the first horse tram lines (they operated until 1910, after 1891, they were replaced with electric trams).
  • 1891
    Beginnings of Wrocław electrification – first electric street lamps at the Market Square.
  • 1901
    Completion a construction of navigable channel and river port at Popowice.
  • 1903
    Huge flood that caused immense damages in the city, but also resulted in speeding up significant regulatory works, as a consequence of which, the Wrocław Water Junction was established, which still operates to this day.
  • 1910
    Opening of the Higher School of Technology (Wyższa Szkoła Techniczna) in Wrocław and Grunwaldzki Bridge (Most Grunwaldzki).
  • 1911
    Merger of two enterprises that led to the establishment of the Linke_- Hoffmann-Werke conglomerate, a potentate in rolling stock production.
  • 1913
    The exhibition “A Century of the Prussian War of Liberation" (Stulecie Pruskiej Wojny Wyzwoleńczej), completion of construction of the People’s Hall (Hala Ludowa).
  • 1914 - 1918
    Wrocław as a stronghold in the background of fronts of World War I.
  • November 1918
    taking over of power in the city by Social Democrats.
  • March 1920
    An attempt to take over power in the city by the counterrevolution powers during the putsch of Kapp and Lüttwitz.
  • 1920
    The team of consulates is joined by the Consulate General of the Republic of Poland.
  • 1926
    Olympic Stadium commissioned for use.
  • 1928
    Enlargement of the administrative borders of the city with a number of suburban housing estates and terrains.
  • 1933
    Taking over of power in Wrocław as well as in all of Germany by the National Socialists, beginnings of Hitler’s terror.
  • 9/10 November 1938
    "Crystal Night” in Wrocław, the largest massacre of Jewish people.
  • 1944
    Wrocław declared as a closed fortress ("Festung Breslau").
  • January 1945
    Forced evacuation of the population, which was tragic in its consequences.
  • February 1945
    Beginning of the city’s siege by the Red Army, immense material demolition and tragedy of citizens.
  • 6 May 1945
    Surrender of "Festung Breslau".
  • 9 May 1945
    The beginning of taking over the city by the Polish administration 2.08.1945 – At the Potsdam Conference, it is decided to give Wrocław and Silesia to Poland.
  • 8 September 1945
    The Wrocław Opera (Opera Wrocławska) starts its operation with “Halka” by Stanisław Moniuszko.
  • 15 November 1945
    Inauguration of the first academic year in post-war Polish Wrocław.
  • 21 July 1946
    Importing a part of the Ossolineum collection and the Panorama of the Battle of Racławice (Panorama Racławicka) canvas from Lviv to Wrocław.
  • 21 July 1948
    Opening of the Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane) exhibition
  • 25 August 1948
    World Congress of Intellectuals in Defence of Peace (delegates from 46 countries)
  • 29 July 1951
    Consecration of the restored St John the Baptist Cathedral (katedra św. Jana Chrzciciela).
  • August 1963
    Smallpox epidemic. City quarantined.
  • 09 August 1966
    Opening of the 1st Festival of Oratorio-Cantata Music (I Festiwal Muzyki Oratoryjno–Kantatowej) “Wratislavia Cantans” – which continues to this day, the largest and the most famous cyclical cultural event in the city.
  • 26 August 1980
    – Wrocław employment establishments joined on-going common strikes in the country, which will lead to establishing the Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity” (NSZZ “Solidarność”).
  • 13 December 1981
    Beginning of martial law. Through whole period of the 80s, Wrocław remains one of the strongest anti-communist opposition centres in Poland.
  • 21 June 1983
    Pope John Paul II visits Wrocław, Holy Mass and a meeting with Wrocław citizens at the horse race track (Tory Wyścigów Konnych) at Partynice.
  • 14 June 1985
    Opening of the restored Panorama of the Battle of Racławice (Panorama Racławicka).
  • 4 June 1989
    Wrocław citizens massively take part in the first free elections to the Seym and the Senate, the beginning of the end of the communist system.
  • 27 May 1990
    The first free self-government elections. The City Council was elected and Prof. Stanisław Miękisz was the first Chairman. Bogdan Zdrojewski became the President.
  • 19 June 1990
    The City Council restores the historic coat of arms of Wrocław, which constitutes a symbol of contemporary Polish citizens accepting Wrocław’s, as well as the German, past.
  • 18 January 1993
    Wrocław airport becomes an International Airport (Międzynarodowy Port Lotniczy).
  • 28 December - 2 January 1995 - 1996
    European Youth Meeting from Taizé in Wrocław.
  • 21 May – 1 June 1997
    46th International Eucharistic Congress with the participation of Pope John Paul II.
  • 1997
    Great renovation of the Market Square completed.
  • July 1997
    Huge flood in Wrocław that, apart from damages, results in speeding up the restoration and modernisation of the municipal infrastructure.
  • June 2000
    Festive celebration of the Millennium of Wrocław.
  • 1 September 2001
    Stanisław Huskowski becomes successor to Bogdan Zdrojewski as the President of the City.
  • 19 November 2002
    The function of the President of Wrocław is taken by Rafał Dutkiewicz, elected for the first time after the war in direct elections.